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Autochthonous Bioaugmentation-Modified Bacterial Diversity of Phenanthrene Degraders in PAH-Contaminated Wastewater as Revealed by DNA-Stable Isotope Probing
- Li, Jibing, Luo, Chunling, Zhang, Dayi, Song, Mengke, Cai, Xixi, Jiang, Longfei, Zhang, Gan
- Environmental science & technology 2018 v.52 no.5 pp. 2934-2944
- Acinetobacter, Ammoniphilus, Enterobacteriaceae, Hyphomicrobium, Mycobacterium, Paenibacillus, Rhodoplanes, Sporosarcina, Xanthomonadaceae, bioaugmentation, biodegradation, genes, inoculum, isotope labeling, mineralization, new taxa, phenanthrenes, wastewater, water pollution
- To reveal the mechanisms of autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) in wastewater contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), DNA-stable-isotope-probing (SIP) was used in the present study with the addition of an autochthonous microorganism Acinetobacter tandoii LJ-5. We found LJ-5 inoculum produced a significant increase in phenanthrene (PHE) mineralization, but LJ-5 surprisingly did not participate in indigenous PHE degradation from the SIP results. The improvement of PHE biodegradation was not explained by the engagement of LJ-5 but attributed to the remarkably altered diversity of PHE degraders. Of the major PHE degraders present in ambient wastewater (Rhodoplanes sp., Mycobacterium sp., Xanthomonadaceae sp. and Enterobacteriaceae sp.), only Mycobacterium sp. and Enterobacteriaceae sp. remained functional in the presence of strain LJ-5, but five new taxa Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Ammoniphilus, Sporosarcina, and Hyphomicrobium were favored. Rhodoplanes, Ammoniphilus, Sporosarcina, and Hyphomicrobium were directly linked to, for the first time, indigenous PHE biodegradation. Sequences of functional PAH-RHDα genes from heavy fractions further proved the change in PHE degraders by identifying distinct PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenases between ambient degradation and ABA. Our findings indicate a new mechanism of ABA, provide new insights into the diversity of PHE-degrading communities, and suggest ABA as a promising in situ bioremediation strategy for PAH-contaminated wastewater.