U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Egg Pasteurization Processes on the Inactivation of High-Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus and Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus in Processed Egg Products

Revis A. Chmielewski, Joan R. Beck, David E. Swayne
Journal of food protection 2013 v.76 no.4 pp. 640-645
chickens, fat substitutes, Newcastle disease, heat inactivation, temperature, Salmonella, trade, Influenza A virus, egg substitutes, pasteurization, Avian orthoavulavirus 1, egg yolk, egg products, avian influenza, viruses, USDA, eggs, United States
Globally, 230,662 metric tons of liquid egg products are marketed each year. The presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) or Newcastle disease in an exporting country can legitimately inhibit trade in eggs and processed egg products; development and validation of pasteurization parameters are essential for safe trade to continue. The HPAI virus (HPAIV) A/ chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/1983 (H5N2) and velogenic Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) AMPV-1/chicken/California/ S01212676/2002 were inoculated into five egg products and heat treated at various times and temperatures to determine thermal inactivation rates to effect a 5-log viral reduction. For HPAIV and vNDV, the pasteurization processes for fortified, sugared, plain, and salted egg yolk, and homogenized whole egg (HPAIV only) products resulted in >5-log reductions in virus at the lower temperature–longer times of U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)–approved Salmonella pasteurization processes. In addition, a >5-log reduction of HPAIV was also demonstrated for the five products at the higher temperatures–shorter times of USDA-approved pasteurization processes, whereas the vNDV virus was adequately inactivated in only fortified and plain egg yolk products. For the salted and sugared egg yolk products, an additional 0.65 and 1.6 min of treatment, respectively, at 63.3uC was necessary to inactivate 5 log of vNDV. Egg substitute with fat does not have standard USDA pasteurization criteria, but the D59-value was 0.75 min, adequate to inactivate 5 log of vNDV in <4 min.