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Protection against H7N3 high pathogenicity avian influenza in chickens immunized with a recombinant fowlpox and an inactivated avian influenza vaccines

Kateri Bertran, Mariana Sá e Silva, Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood, David E. Swayne
Vaccine 2013 v.31 no.35 pp. 3572-3576
Fowlpox virus, avian influenza, chickens, chicks, epizootic diseases, fowl pox, gastrointestinal system, genes, inactivated vaccines, morbidity, mortality, pathogenicity, recombinant vaccines, respiratory system, vaccination, vaccine development, viral shedding, Mexico
Beginning on June 2012, an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epizootic was reported in the State of Jalisco (Mexico), with some 22.4 million chickens that died, were slaughtered on affected farms or were preemptively culled on neighboring farms. In the current study, layer chickens were vaccinated with a recombinant fowlpox virus vaccine containing a low pathogenic AI (LPAI) H7 gene insert (rFPV-H7-AIV) and an inactivated oil-emulsified H7N3 AIV vaccine, and subsequently challenged against the Jalisco H7N3 HPAIV. All vaccine combinations provided similar and significant protection against mortality, morbidity, and shedding of challenge virus from the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Serological data also suggested analogous protection from HPAIV among immunized birds. Control of the recent Jalisco AIV infection could be achieved by using various combinations of the two vaccines tested. Even though a single dose of rFPV-H7-AIV vaccine at 1-day-of-age would be the most pragmatic option, optimal protection may require a second dose of vaccine administered in the field.