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Molecular epidemiology of infectious laryngotracheitis: a review

Kimberly R. Menendez, Maricarmen García, Stephen Spatz, Nathaniel L. Tablante
Avian pathology 2014 v.43 no.2 pp. 108-117
Gallid alphaherpesvirus 1, viral diseases of animals and humans, poultry production, respiratory tract diseases, live vaccines, poultry diseases, viral antigens, disease outbreaks, genes, molecular epidemiology, nucleotide sequences, vaccination, genetic variation, virulence, disease incidence
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important respiratory disease of poultry that affects the poultry industry worldwide. The disease is caused by gallid herpesvirus I (GaHV-1), a member of the genus Iltovirus , family Herpesviridae , subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae . The current incidence of the disease is heavily influenced by live attenuated vaccines, which have been used extensively since their introduction in the mid-twentieth century. The capability of current live attenuated vaccine viruses to revert to virulence and spread from bird to bird has shaped the molecular epidemiology of ILT. Because of the antigenic homogeneity among GaHV-1 strains, differentiation of strains has been achieved by targeting genomic differences between outbreak-related isolates and vaccine strains. Numerous genes and genomic regions have been utilized in the development of DNA-based diagnostic assays to differentiate outbreak-related isolates from vaccine strains in countries where ILT outbreaks have occurred. More recently, full genome sequences have allowed determination of the origin of some of the outbreak-related isolates circulating in some poultry production countries. Overall, molecular typing data collected worldwide have identified live attenuated vaccine-related isolates as the primary source for outbreaks of the disease.