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Transcription factor regulation and cytokine expression following in vitro infection of primary chicken cell culture with low pathogenic avian influenza virus

Haijun Jiang, Kangzhen Yu, Darrell R Kapczynski
Virology journal 2013 v.10 no.1 pp. 342
Influenza A virus, cell culture, chickens, gene expression regulation, genes, hepatocytes, immune response, interferon-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, pathogenesis, transcription factors, trypsin, virus replication
BACKGROUND: Avian influenza virus (AIV) induced proinflammatory cytokine expression is believed to contribute to the disease pathogenesis following infection of poultry. However, there is limited information on the avian immune response to infection with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV). METHODS: To gain a better understanding of the early viral-host interactions of LPAIV in chickens, primary chicken embryo hepatocytes (CEH) were infected with four different LPAIVs of U.S. origin. Kinetics of virus replication, transcription factor (c-Jun, p50 and IRF-3) activation and immune response gene (IL-6, IL-1beta, IFN-alpha and Mx) expression were studied at four different time points (6, 12, 24 and 48 hours) post infection and compared to non-infected controls. RESULTS: CEH can support growth of the tested LPAIVs when with trypsin supplementation. All four immune response genes tested were upregulated following infection as were transcription factors c-Jun, p50 and IRF-3. Amplification of these genes was dependant on virus replication (e.g. inclusion of trypsin), such that immune response genes and transcription factors were upregulated as viral titers increased. CONCLUSION: The results of these studies demonstrate the requirement of virus replication for innate immune regulation and broaden our understanding of transcription factor responses related to LPAIV infection in chickens.