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Salmonella vaccines: lessons from the mouse model or bad teaching?

Strugnell, Richard A, Scott, Timothy A, Wang, Nancy, Yang, Chenying, Peres, Newton, Bedoui, Sammy, Kupz, Andreas
Current opinion in microbiology 2014 v.17 pp. 99-105
adaptive immunity, animal models, antibodies, antigens, bacteria, burden of disease, fever, gastroenteritis, humans, mice, pathogenesis, serotypes, typhoid fever, vaccine development, vaccines
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica includes several very important human serovars including Typhi, Paratyphi, Typhimurium and Enteritidis. These bacteria cause a significant global burden of disease, typically classified into enteric fever, gastroenteritis and, more recently, invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis (iNTS). Vaccines have been developed for one of these serovars, S. Typhi and the recent increase in iNTS cases has resulted in a push to develop new vaccines that will inhibit disease by S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, the most common iNTS S. enterica serovars. The development of new human vaccines has been informed by studies in the murine model of typhoid fever based on S. Typhimurium infections of very ‘sensitive’ (Nramp-1S) mice, which has some obvious deficiencies, not the least that antibodies protect humans against S. Typhi infection but are only weakly protective in ‘sensitive’ mice infected with S. Typhimurium. S. Typhimurium also lacks Vi, the target of protective antibodies in typhoid fever. Notwithstanding these deficiencies, the murine model has identified a very complex series of innate and adaptive immune responses to infection that might be exploited to develop new vaccines. Equally, advances in understanding the pathogenesis of infection, through pathogenomics and more sophisticated animal models will likely contribute to the development of novel immunogens.