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Heavy metal concentrations and chemical fractions in sediment from Swan Lagoon, China: Their relation to the physiochemical properties of sediment

Hu, Chengye, Yang, Xiaolong, Dong, Jianyu, Zhang, Xiumei
Chemosphere 2018 v.209 pp. 848-856
risk, sediment contamination, manganese oxides, texture, copper, iron oxides, heavy metals, lead, zinc, cadmium, organic carbon, risk assessment, silt, toxicity, multivariate analysis, chromium, sand, China
This study was performed to determine the distribution and chemical fractions of five heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in sediment from three sampling areas in Swan Lagoon, and their relation to the physiochemical properties of sediment were explored. The results revealed that Cd in sediment from the sand part (SP), muddy sand part (MSP) and sand muddy part (SMP) were potentially highly susceptible and bioavailable since the exchangeable fractions were 21.0%, 27.4%, and 32.1%, respectively, of the total concentrations. A portion of Pb and Zn were observed as reducible fractions owing to their affinity to Fe-Mn; they were able to complex with Fe-Mn oxides and oxyhydroxides in the sediment. A large amount of Cu in the oxidizable fraction may be due to the fact that Cu can easily form stable complexes with organic matter. Cr was overwhelmingly found in the residual fraction, suggesting that Cr was strongly bound in mineral lattices. Enrichment factors (EF) indicated that Cd in three sampling areas suffered severe enrichment, whereas other metals were present in only minor amounts. In addition, Cd may pose a medium to high risk in the MSP and SMP based on risk assessment codes. According to the mean probable effects level quotient, the samples from the MSP and SMP had a 21% probability of toxicity. The multivariate statistical analysis suggested that sediment texture (d0.5, sand and silt), Fe-Mn, and the total organic carbon (TOC) influenced the distribution of the studied metals and their chemical fractions.