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Exposure of an urban population to pesticides assessed by wastewater-based epidemiology in a Caribbean island

Devault, Damien A., Karolak, Sara, Lévi, Yves, Rousis, Nikolaos I., Zuccato, Ettore, Castiglioni, Sara
The Science of the total environment 2018 v.644 pp. 129-136
acceptable daily intake, biomarkers, chlordecone, cities, epidemiology, humans, insecticide residues, liquid chromatography, metabolites, organophosphorus compounds, pyrethrins, tandem mass spectrometry, triazines, urban population, wastewater, xenobiotics, Caribbean, Europe, Martinique
Wastewater-based epidemiology is an innovative approach to estimate the consumption of chemicals and their exposure patterns in a population, on the basis of measurements of biomarkers in wastewater. This method can provide objective real-time information on xenobiotics directly or indirectly ingested by a population. This approach was used to examine the exposure of the Martinique population to the three classes of pesticides: triazines, organophosphates and pyrethroids. Martinique island (French West Indies) is a closed market and has been closely monitored since the early 2000's when contamination with chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide widely applied between 1972 and 1993 in banana plantations, became a critical political issue.The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the patterns of human exposure and compare the results to those from other countries. Wastewater was collected as 24-h composite samples and analysed for selected urinary pesticide metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Organophosphate and pyrethroid metabolites were found in all the samples up to 330 ng/L, while triazines were found only at trace levels. Mass loads indicated higher exposure to pyrethroids than in some cities in Europe, but lower exposure to triazines and organophosphates. The estimated human intake for pyrethroids was close to the Acceptable Daily Intake, but importation of these pesticides to Martinique was low. This study illustrates the high human exposure with indoor pesticide use in comparison to its use in agriculture.