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Chronic toxicity of metolachlor OA on growth, ontogenetic development, antioxidant biomarkers and histopathology of early life stages of marbled crayfish
- Velisek, Josef, Stara, Alzbeta, Zuskova, Eliska, Kubec, Jan, Buric, Milos, Kouba, Antonin
- The Science of the total environment 2018 v.643 pp. 1456-1463
- Procambarus, antioxidant biomarkers, antioxidants, catalase, chronic toxicity, crayfish, developmental stages, enzyme activity, gills, glutathione, glutathione transferase, hepatopancreas, histology, histopathology, lipid peroxidation, metabolites, metolachlor, mortality, ontogeny, oxidative stress, superoxide dismutase, walking
- The metolachlor OA is a metabolite of herbicide metolachlor and s-metolachlor. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect metolachlor OA on early life stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis). The early life stages of marbled crayfish were exposed for 45 days to three concentrations of metolachlor OA: 4.2 μg/L (environmentally relevant concentration, E1), 42 μg/L (E2) and 420 μg/L (E3) under laboratory conditions. The effects were assessed on the basis of mortality, growth, ontogenetic development, behaviour, oxidative stress, antioxidant biomarkers and histopathology. Metolachlor OA caused significantly lower growth, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione s-transferase activity in all tested concentrations. Metolachlor OA in higher concentrations (42 and 420 μg/L) resulted in significantly delayed ontogenetic development, lower reduced glutathione level and lipid peroxidation. Metolachlor OA has not significant effect on behaviour (activity, total distance moved and walking speed). Histological examination revealed alteration of hepatopancreas and gills in crayfish exposed to two higher tested concentrations. Hepatopancreas reflected histomorphological structural changes of individual cell types. Changes of gills included focal hemocytic infiltration together with enlargement of intralamellar space packed with granular substance. In conclusion, chronic metolachlor OA exposure affected growth, ontogenetic development, and the antioxidant system and caused pathological changes in hepatopancreas and gills of early life stages of marbled crayfish.