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Methylene blue removal from water using the hydrogel beads of poly(vinyl alcohol)-sodium alginate-chitosan-montmorillonite

Wang, Wei, Zhao, Yunliang, Bai, Haoyu, Zhang, Tingting, Ibarra-Galvan, Valentin, Song, Shaoxian
Carbohydrate polymers 2018 v.198 pp. 518-528
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, adsorption, electrostatic interactions, endothermy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, hydrogels, hydrogen bonding, methylene blue, models, nanosheets, oxygen, pH, polyvinyl alcohol, scanning electron microscopy, sodium
Poly(vinyl alcohol)-sodium alginate-chitosan-montmorillonite nanosheets (MMTNS) hydrogel beads with porous and steady structure were fabricated via hydrogen-bond and electrostatic interactions, and were characterized by FTIR, TG, SEM and effecting tests. The results suggested MMTNS could support and maintain the porous structure, making an open excess for MB molecules. The increasing proportion of MMTNS in hydrogel beads enhanced the MB removal. Hydrogel beads possessed higher affinity to MB at high pHs due to the stronger electronegativity triggered by deprotonation of hydroxyls. Moreover, hydrogel beads had a good stability and reusability. The adsorption process was correlated with Elovich kinetics model, and fitted well with Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherm models. The adsorption of MB on hydrogel beads was a disorderliness, endothermic and spontaneous process detected by the thrmodynamic. MB molecules reacted with the oxygen atoms in hydroxyl and substitute the Na+ in MMTNS were proved by EDS, XPS and Na+ concentration variation.