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The varied ability of grains to synthesize and catabolize ABA is one of the factors affecting dormancy and its release by after-ripening in imbibed triticale grains of cultivars with different pre-harvest sprouting susceptibilities
- Fidler, Justyna, Grabowska, Agnieszka, Prabucka, Beata, Więsyk, Aneta, Góra-Sochacka, Anna, Bielawski, Wiesław, Pojmaj, Mirosław, Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta
- Journal of plant physiology 2018 v.226 pp. 48-55
- 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, abscisic acid, after-ripening, biosynthesis, cultivars, dormancy, genes, genetically modified organisms, germination, imbibition, seeds, tobacco, triticale, vivipary (plants)
- Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone involved in the acquisition of primary dormancy during seeds maturation as well as dormancy maintenance in imbibed seeds. After imbibition, the ABA content decreased to a much lower level in embryos of freshly harvested triticale grains of the Leontino cultivar, which is more susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) than embryos of the Fredro cultivar. Lower ABA content in the Leontino cultivar resulted from increased expression of TsABA8′OH1 and TsABA8′OH2, which encode ABA 8′-hydroxylase and are involved in ABA catabolism. Higher ABA content and maintenance of dormancy in Fredro grains were correlated with intensified ABA biosynthesis, which resulted from higher expression of TsNCED1, which encodes 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase. These results suggest that grains of triticale cultivars with different resistance to PHS vary in their ability to metabolize ABA after imbibition.After-ripening did not affect the ABA content in embryos of dry grains of either triticale cultivar. However, after-ripening caused dormancy release in Fredro grains and significantly affected the ABA content and the rate of its metabolism after imbibition. A more rapid decline in ABA content in imbibed Fredro grains was accompanied by decreased transcript levels of TsNCED1 as well as increased expression of TsABA8′OH1 and TsABA8′OH2. Thus, after-ripening may affect dormancy of grains through reduction of the ABA biosynthesis rate and intensified ABA catabolism.Overexpression of TsNCED1 in tobacco increases ABA content and delays germination, while overexpression of TsABA8′OH2 decreases ABA content, accelerates germination, and reduces the sensitivity to ABA of transgenic seeds compared to seeds of wild-type plants. Therefore, these genes might play an important role in the regulation of triticale grain dormancy, thus affecting susceptibility to PHS.