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Selection for Some Functional Markers for Adaptability of Helianthus argophyllus × Helianthus annuus Derived Population under Abiotic Stress Conditions

Hussain, Muhammad Mubashar, Kausar, Maria, Rauf, Saeed, Khan, M. Farukh Zafar, Paderweski, Jakub, Khan, Maria, ul Haq, Ikram, Raza, Abu Bakar Muhammad
Helia 2018 v.41 no.68 pp. 83-108
Helianthus annuus, Helianthus argophyllus, biomarkers, canopy, cell membranes, color, crop production, drought, drought tolerance, epicuticular wax, functional diversity, hybrids, inbred lines, introgression, leaves, parents, phenotype, stress tolerance, water stress
Abiotic stresses including drought are major crop production constraints. However, specific functional phenotypic markers induce resistance against these stresses. Therefore, a study was initiated to study the variability, inheritance and selection of epicuticular waxes (EW) and leaf hairiness (LH) along with low cell membrane injuries (CMI) within F₂ populations derived by crossing H. annuus×H. argophyllus lines. These traits have been shown to be associated with drought tolerance of Helianthus argophyllus and thus study aims to introgress these traits in Helinathus annuus. The studied parent populations showed contrasting values of the traits. The drought susceptible line CMS-14 and CMS-20 showed lower epicuticular waxes (0.79, 0.69 mg g⁻¹), leaf hairiness (0.75, 1.53) and higher cell membrane injury (40.90, 55.76 %) respectively while drought resistant line Argo 1802 and 1806 showed higher epicuticular waxes (2.28, 3.18), leaf hairiness (3.71, 3.80) and lower cell membrane injury (14.22, 21.54 %) respectively. The F₁ hybrids had mean values of the three studied parameters i. e. epicuticular waxes (1.50 mg g⁻¹), cell membrance injury (32.54 %) and leaf hairiness (2.74) in the range of parent lines, but some of F₂ individuals extend beyond this range (Parents and F₁s). The two-step selections maintained high variability especially of LH for set of F₂ individuals (H. annuus CMS-20×H. argophyllus 1806). Simultaneous selection of F₂ individuals with high values of LH or EW with low CMI was possible. The selected plants were further studied for narrow leaf, high fertility and silver canopy color. Selected material was promoted as the candidate of inbred line. Plant (F₄) having introgressed traits (silver canopy) showed lower yield (19 %) than green leafed plants (53 %) and commercial hybrids under drought stress (63 % and 53 %). The study could help to increase the abiotic stress tolerance, minimize the yield losses under drought stress and increase functional diversity within sunflower.