Main content area

Detection and molecular characterisation of Pyrenopeziza brassicae isolates resistant to methyl benzimidazole carbamates

Carter, Helen E, Cools, Hans J, West, Jonathan S, Shaw, Michael W, Fraaije, Bart A
Pest management science 2013 v.69 no.9 pp. 1040-1048
Brassica napus var. napus, DNA, Pyrenopeziza brassicae, alleles, amino acid substitution, benzimidazole, carbamates, diethofencarb, pathogens, polymerase chain reaction, resistance management, sequence analysis, tubulin
BACKGROUND: Methyl benzimidazole carbamate (MBC) fungicides are used to control the oilseed rape pathogen Pyrenopeziza brassicae. Resistance to MBCs has been reported in P. brassicae, but the molecular mechanism(s) associated with reductions in sensitivity have not been verified in this species. Elucidation of the genetic changes responsible for resistance, hypothesised to be target‐site mutations in β‐tubulin, will enable resistance diagnostics and thereby inform resistance management strategies. RESULTS: P. brassicae isolates were classified as sensitive, moderately resistant or resistant to MBCs. Crossing P. brassicae isolates of different MBC sensitivities indicated that resistance was conferred by a single gene. The MBC‐target encoding gene β‐tubulin was cloned and sequenced. Reduced MBC sensitivity of field isolates correlated with β‐tubulin amino acid substitutions L240F and E198A. The highest level of MBC resistance was measured for isolates carrying E198A. Negative cross‐resistance between MBCs and the fungicides diethofencarb and zoxamide was only measured in E198A isolates. PCR‐RFLP was used to screen isolates for the presence of L240F and E198A. The substitutions E198G and F200Y were also detected in DNA samples from P. brassicae populations after cloning and sequencing of PCR products. The frequencies of L240F and E198A in different P. brassicae populations were quantified by pyrosequencing. There were no differences in the frequencies of these alleles between P. brassicae populations sampled from different locations or after fungicide treatment regimes. CONCLUSIONS: The molecular mechanisms affecting sensitivity to MBCs in P. brassicae have been identified. Pyrosequencing assays are a powerful tool for quantifying fungicide‐resistant alleles in pathogen populations. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry