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An analysis of reported cases of leishmaniasis in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon region, 1986–2012

Author:
Olalla, Hector R., Velez, Lenin N., Kato, Hirotomo, Hashiguchi, Kazue, Caceres, Abraham G., Gomez, Eduardo A., Zambrano, Flavio C., Romero-Álvarez, Daniel A., Guevara, Angel G., Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa
Source:
Acta tropica 2015 v.146 pp. 119-126
ISSN:
0001-706X
Subject:
Leishmania braziliensis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, disease control, insecticides, planning, spraying, wet season, Amazonia, Ecuador
Abstract:
An analysis of reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was performed using the data registered in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon region during 27 years from 1986 to 2012. The cases/subjects with both the suspected CL lesions and the amastigote-positive results were recruited for the analysis. The yearly occurrence of cases showed a markedly higher number during the six years, 1988 and 1993. After 1994 when the insecticide spraying campaign using helicopter in 1993–1994, the number dropped remarkably. Then, the yearly occurrence gradually fluctuated from 101 cases in 1996 to 11 in 2009, maintaining a low number of cases after the campaign. The monthly occurrence of cases showed a markedly high number during March and August, suggesting a correlation to the rainy season (months) in the areas. A statistical significance was found between the monthly average number of the CL case and the average precipitation (p=0.01474). It was suggested that the time of transmission of CL would depend on the rainy seasons at each endemic area of Ecuador, which has a diverse climatic feature depending on the geographic regions. Such information at given leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador would be important for the future planning of the disease control. Molecular analysis and characterization of clinical samples revealed the presence of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.
Agid:
6021120