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Alginate/sodium caseinate aqueous-core capsules: A pH-responsive matrix

Ben Messaoud, Ghazi, Sánchez-González, Laura, Jacquot, Adrien, Probst, Laurent, Desobry, Stéphane
Journal of colloid and interface science 2015 v.440 pp. 1-8
absorbance, adsorption, alginates, electrostatic interactions, extrusion, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, isoelectric point, modulus of elasticity, pH, permeability, protein content, sodium caseinate, tryptophan
Alginate capsules have several applications. Their functionality depends considerably on their permeability, chemical and mechanical stability. Consequently, the creation of composite system by addition of further components is expected to control mechanical and release properties of alginate capsules.Alginate and alginate–sodium caseinate composite liquid-core capsules were prepared by a simple extrusion. The influence of the preparation pH and sodium caseinate concentration on capsules physico-chemical properties was investigated.Results showed that sodium caseinate influenced significantly capsules properties. As regards to the membrane mechanical stability, composite capsules prepared at pH below the isoelectric point of sodium caseinate exhibited the highest surface Young’s modulus, increasing with protein content, explained by potential electrostatic interactions between sodium caseinate amino-groups and alginate carboxylic group. The kinetic of cochineal red A release changed significantly for composite capsules and showed a pH-responsive release.Sodium caseinate-dye mixture studied by absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed complex formation at pH 2 by electrostatic interactions between sodium caseinate tryptophan residues and cochineal red sulfonate-groups. Consequently, the release mechanism was explained by membrane adsorption process.This global approach is useful to control release mechanism from macro and micro-capsules by incorporating guest molecules which can interact with the entrapped molecule under specific conditions.