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Battery Condenser System PM10 Emission Factors and Rates for Cotton Gins: Method 201A PM10 Sizing Cyclones

Michael D. Buser, Derek P. Whitelock, J. Cliff Boykin, Gregory A. Holt
Journal of cotton science 2014 v.18 no.2 pp. 258-267
cotton ginning, industry, emissions factor, condensers, particulates, particulate emissions, agricultural machinery and equipment, batteries
This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was focused on EPA emission factors for particulate matter with a particle diameter nominally less than or equal to 10 μm (PM10). The 1996 EPA AP-42 emission factors were assigned quality ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), to assess the quality of the data being referenced. Emission factor quality ratings for cotton gins were extremely low. Cotton gin data received these low ratings because they were collected almost exclusively from a single geographical region. The objective of this study was to collect additional PM10 emission factor data for battery condenser systems at cotton gins located in regions across the cotton belt based on EPA-approved stack sampling methodology, Method 201A. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins across the cotton belt. Key factors for selecting specific cotton gins included: 1) facility location, 2) production capacity, 3) processing systems and 4) abatement technologies. Six of the seven gins were equipped with battery condensers with cyclones on the system exhausts. In terms of capacity, the six gins were typical of the industry, averaging 31.6 bales/h during testing. The battery condenser system average emission factors for PM10 and total particulate were 0.017 kg/227-kg bale (0.036 lb/500-lb bale) and 0.034 kg/bale (0.075 lb/ bale), respectively. System average PM10 and total particulate emission factors were higher than those currently published in EPA AP-42. The battery condenser system PM10 emission rate test averages ranged from 0.17 to 1.16 kg/h (0.37-2.57 lb/h). The ratio of battery condenser system PM10 to total particulate was 48.3%.