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Trends in usage of selected fungicides in Japan between 1962 and 2014: a review
- Kaonga, C. C., Chidya, R. C. G., Kosamu, I. B. M., Abdel-dayem, S. M., Mapoma, H. W. T., Thole, B., Mbewe, R., Sakugawa, H.
- International journal of environmental science and technology 2018 v.15 no.8 pp. 1801-1814
- captan, chlorothalonil, fenarimol, ferbam, iprodione, isoprothiolane, mancozeb, metalaxyl, myclobutanil, pencycuron, thiophanate-methyl, tolclofos-methyl, toxicity, triadimefon, trifloxystrobin, Japan
- A review of Japan’s fungicide usage from the 1960s to recent times was conducted using data from the National Institute of Environmental Studies, Japan. A total of 16 commonly used fungicides were assessed and these are: captan, chlorothalonil, fenarimol, ferbam, fosetyl-Al, iprodione, isoprothiolane, mancozeb, mepronil, metalaxyl, myclobutanil, pencycuron, thiophanate-methyl, tolclofos-methyl, triadimefon and trifloxystrobin. The assessment revealed that the most used fungicide within the period (1962–2014) was chlorothalonil with a maximum usage amount of 1795 tons/year. The least used was found to be myclobutanil with a maximum usage amount of 8 tons/year within the same reporting period. Generally, the usage of most of the fungicides peaked between the 1980s to early 2000s. For most of these fungicides, their usage amounts have decreased in recent times. However, the continuous usage of these fungicides has a potential to cause problems in the environment ranging from mere irritations to being very toxic to human beings and organisms.