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Effects of concentrate‐to‐forage ratios and 2‐methylbutyrate supplementation on ruminal fermentation, bacteria abundance and urinary excretion of purine derivatives in Chinese Simmental steers
- Wang, C., Liu, Q., Guo, G., Huo, W. J., Pei, C. X., Zhang, S. L., Wang, H.
- Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition 2018 v.102 no.4 pp. 901-909
- Fibrobacter succinogenes, Prevotella ruminicola, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Simmental, acetates, ammonium nitrogen, average daily gain, bacteria, beta-glucosidase, body weight, cannulas, crude protein, diet, dry matter intake, endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, enzyme activity, excretion, feed conversion, growth performance, neutral detergent fiber, pH, polygalacturonase, propionic acid, proteinases, rumen bacteria, rumen fermentation, steers, volatile fatty acids, xylanases
- This study evaluated the effects of dietary concentrate levels and 2‐methylbutyrate (2MB) supplementation on performance, ruminal fermentation, bacteria abundance, microbial enzyme activity and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in steers. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers (12 months of age; 389 ± 3.7 kg of body weight) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Moderate‐concentrate (400 g/kg diet [MC]) or high‐concentrate (600 g/kg diet [HC]) diets were fed with or without 2MB (0 g/day [2MB−] or 15.0 g/day [2MB+]). Dry matter intake and average daily gain increased, but feed conversion ratio decreased with the HC diet or 2MB supplementation. Ruminal pH decreased, but total volatile fatty acid increased with the HC diet or 2MB supplementation. Molar proportion of acetate and acetate‐to‐propionate ratio decreased with the HC diet, but increased with 2MB supplementation. Propionate molar proportion and ruminal NH₃‐N content increased with the HC diet, but decreased with 2MB supplementation. Neutral detergent fibre degradability decreased with the HC diet, but increased with 2MB supplementation. Crude protein degradability increased with the HC diet or 2MB supplementation. Abundance of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Bufyrivibrio fibrisolvens as well as activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase and pectinase decreased with the HC diet, but increased with 2MB supplementation. However, abundance of Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminobacter amylophilus as well as activities of α‐amylase and protease increased with the HC diet or 2MB supplementation. Total PD excretion also increased with the HC diet or 2MB supplementation. The results suggested that growth performance, ruminal fermentation, CP degradability and total PD excretion increased with increasing dietary concentrate level from 40% to 60% or 2MB supplementation. The observed diet × 2MB interaction indicated that supplementation of 2MB was more efficacious for improving growth performance, ruminal fermentation and total PD excretion with promoted ruminal bacteria abundance and enzyme activity in the MC diet than in the HC diet.