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Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in children in Egypt

Naguib, Doaa, El-Gohary, Adel H., Roellig, Dawn, Mohamed, Amro A., Arafat, Nagah, Wang, Yuanfei, Feng, Yaoyu, Xiao, Lihua
Parasites & vectors 2018 v.11 no.1 pp. 403
Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, children, epidemiology, feces, genes, genetic heterogeneity, genotype, giardin protein, glutamate dehydrogenase, glycoproteins, humans, parasites, pathogens, polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism, ribosomal RNA, sequence analysis, triose-phosphate isomerase, Egypt
BACKGROUND: The transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis into humans varies according to species/genotypes of the pathogens. Although infections with both parasites are recorded in Egypt, few data are available on the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and G. duodenalis genotypes. The present study assessed the occurrence and genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis in Egyptian children. METHODS: In the present study, 585 fecal specimens were collected from children eight years old and younger in three provinces (El-Dakahlia, El-Gharbia and Damietta) during March 2015 to April 2016. PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene and sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene were used to detect and subtype Cryptosporidium spp., respectively, whereas PCR and sequence analyses of the triose phosphate isomerase, glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes were used to detect and genotype Giardia duodenalis. RESULTS: The overall infection rates of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were 1.4% and 11.3%, respectively. The Cryptosporidium species identified included C. hominis and C. parvum, each with three subtype families. The C. hominis subtypes were IbA6G3 (n = 2), IdA17 (n = 1), IdA24 (n = 1) and IfA14G1R5 (n = 1), while C. parvum subtypes were IIdA20G1 (n = 1), IIaA15G2R1 (n = 1), and IIcA5G3a (n = 1). The G. duodenalis identified included both assemblages A (n = 31) and B (n = 34). All G. duodenalis assemblage A belonged to the anthroponotic sub-assemblage AII, while a high genetic heterogeneity was seen within assemblage B. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this study are useful in our understanding of the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis in Egypt and the potential importance of anthroponotic transmission in the epidemiology of both pathogens.