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Balanced Regulation of Redox Status of Intracellular Thioredoxin Revealed by in-Cell NMR

Mochizuki, Ayano, Saso, Arata, Zhao, Qingci, Kubo, Satoshi, Nishida, Noritaka, Shimada, Ichio
Journal of the American Chemical Society 2018 v.140 no.10 pp. 3784-3790
glutathione, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, oxidation, oxidative stress, proteins, redox potential, thioredoxins
To understand how intracellular proteins respond to oxidative stresses, the redox status of the target protein, as well as the intracellular redox potential (EGSH), which is defined by the concentrations of reduced and oxidized glutathione, should be observed simultaneously within living cells. In this study, we developed a method that can monitor the redox status of thioredoxin (Trx) and EGSH by direct NMR observation of Trx and glutathione within living cells. Unlike the midpoint potential of Trx measured in vitro (∼ –300 mV), the intracellular Trx exhibited the redox transition at EGSH between −250 and −200 mV, the range known to trigger the oxidative stress-mediated signalings. Furthermore, we quantified the contribution of Trx reductase to the redox status of Trx, demonstrating that the redox profile of Trx is determined by the interplay between the elevation of EGSH and the reduction by Trx reductase and other endogenous molecules.