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Effects of Uniquely Processed Cowpea and Plantain Flours on Wheat Bread Properties

Charles Onwulata, Audrey Thomas‐Gahring, Charlotte Oduro‐Yeboah, Andre K. White, Arland T. Hotchkiss
Journal of food processing and preservation 2015 v.39 no.4 pp. 413-422
alkali treatment, baking, baking quality, breads, chemical composition, citric acid, cowpeas, glucose, heat treatment, hulls, loaves, magnesium, pastes, plantains (fruit), raffinose, seeds, soaking, stachyose, temperature, viscosity, vitamin A, wheat, wheat flour
The effect of incorporating uniquely processed whole‐seed cowpeas or plantain flours at 10 or 20 g/100 g in all‐purpose wheat flour on paste viscosity and bread‐baking properties in a model bread was determined. Blanching plantains in hot water (100C) for 2 min increased final viscosity, reduced rapidly available glucose (RAG) from 8.5 to 4.5 μg glucose/mg, and increased bread loaf size. Whole‐seed cowpeas containing the hulls processed by soaking in water (CPS), reduced raffinose significantly (P < 0.05), and α‐galactosidase enzyme (CPE) treatment eliminated both raffinose and stachyose completely. CPS decreased RAG values from 8.5 to 2.8 μg glucose/mg. Incorporating cowpea flours into model wheat breads increased loaf size. CPE flours reduced bread loaf size and increased internal browning. These flours can be incorporated into all‐purpose wheat flour bread up to 20 g/100 g with improved physical properties, and possibly better glycemic responses. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Plantain is an emerging source of slowly digestible starch, and cowpeas are rich in proteins and micronutrients that could help to combat metabolic syndrome. Unique processes that convert whole‐seed cowpeas and plantains into dried flours will enhance commercial utilization of these tropical produce. Converting peak season cowpea and plantain into shelf‐stable food powders will provide long‐term storage, eliminate postharvest losses, add economic value, and enhance food safety and security in the tropics.