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Influence of ethanol adaptation on Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis survival in acidic environments and expression of acid tolerance-related genes

He, Shoukui, Cui, Yan, Qin, Xiaojie, Zhang, Fen, Shi, Chunlei, Paoli, George C., Shi, Xianming
Food microbiology 2018 v.72 pp. 193-198
Salmonella Enteritidis, acid tolerance, apple juice, cross immunity, ethanol, food processing, food safety, gene expression regulation, malic acid, minimum inhibitory concentration, orange juice, pH, phenotype, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, resistance genes, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, storage temperature, transcription (genetics)
Cross-protection to environmental stresses by ethanol adaptation in Salmonella poses a great threat to food safety because it can undermine food processing interventions. The ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) to develop acid resistance following ethanol adaptation (5% ethanol for 1 h) was evaluated in this study. Ethanol-adapted S. Enteritidis mounted cross-tolerance to malic acid (a two-fold increase in minimum bactericidal concentration), but not to acetic, ascorbic, lactic, citric and hydrochloric acids. The population of S. Enteritidis in orange juice (pH 3.77) over a 48-h period was not significantly (p > 0.05) influenced by ethanol adaptation. However, an increased survival by 0.09–1.02 log CFU/ml was noted with ethanol-adapted cells of S. Enteritidis compared to non-adapted cells in apple juice (pH 3.57) stored at 25 °C (p < 0.05), but not at 4 °C. RT-qPCR revealed upregulation of two acid tolerance-related genes, rpoS (encoding σS) and SEN1564A (encoding an acid shock protein), following ethanol adaptation. The relative expression level of the acid resistance gene hdeB did not change. The resistance phenotypes and transcriptional profiles of S. Enteritidis suggest some involvement of rpoS and SEN1564A in the ethanol-induced acid tolerance mechanism.