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Deciphering the tri-dimensional effect of endophytic Streptomyces sp. on chickpea for plant growth promotion, helper effect with Mesorhizobium ciceri and host-plant resistance induction against Botrytis cinerea

Vijayabharathi, Rajendran, Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam, Sathya, Arumugam, Srinivas, Vadlamudi, Sharma, Mamta
Microbial pathogenesis 2018 v.122 pp. 98-107
Botrytis cinerea, Mesorhizobium ciceri, Streptomyces, antioxidants, ascorbate peroxidase, biomass, catalase, catechol oxidase, chickpeas, endophytes, enzyme activity, genes, genotype, glutathione-disulfide reductase, gray mold, growth promotion, host plants, leaves, nitrogenase, nodulation, peroxidase, phenolic compounds, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, plant growth, principal component analysis, roots, seed weight, stems, superoxide dismutase
A total of 219 endophytic actinobacteria, isolated from roots, stems and leaves of chickpea, were characterized for antagonistic potential against Botrytis cinerea, causal organism of Botrytis grey mold (BGM) disease, in chickpea. Among them, three most potential endophytes, AUR2, AUR4 and ARR4 were further characterized for their plant growth-promoting (PGP) and nodulating potentials and host-plant resistance against B. cinerea, in chickpea. The sequences of 16 S rDNA gene of the three endophytes were matched with Streptomyces but different species. In planta, the isolate AUR4 alone was able to significantly enhance PGP traits including seed numbers (11.8 vs. 9.8/Plant), seed weight (8 vs. 6.8 g/Plant), pod numbers (13.6 vs. 11.5/Plant), pod weight (9.3 vs. 7.5 g/Plant) and biomass (10.9 vs. 8 g/Plant) over the un-inoculated control in chickpea genotype JG11. Interestingly, consortium of the selected endophytes, AUR2, AUR4 and ARR4 were found less effective than single inoculation. Co-inoculation of the selected endophytes with Mesorhizobium ciceri significantly enhanced nodulation and nitrogenase activity in five chickpea genotypes including ICCV2, ICCV10, ICC4958, Annigeri and JG11 over the un-inoculated control. The selected endophytes showed antagonistic potential in planta by significant reduction of disease incidence (28─52%) in both single inoculation and consortium treatments over the un-inoculated control across the genotypes ICC4954 (susceptible), ICCV05530 (moderately resistant) and JG11 (unknown resistance). Further, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, glutathione reductase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenol oxidase and phenolics were found induced in the leaves of chickpea inoculated with selected endophytes over un-inoculated control. Principal component analysis revealed that, the antioxidant enzymes and phenolics were found in the magnitude of ICC4954 < JG11 < ICCV05530 which correlates with their resistance level. The selected endophytes enhanced the plant growth and also host plant resistance against BGM in chickpea.