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A chloroplast membrane protein LTO1/AtVKOR involving in redox regulation and ROS homeostasis

Lu, Ying, Wang, Hua-Rong, Li, Han, Cui, Hao-Ran, Feng, Yue-Guang, Wang, Xiao-Yun
Plant cell reports 2013 v.32 no.9 pp. 1427-1440
Arabidopsis, D1 protein, catalase, chlorophyll, chloroplasts, disulfide bonds, genes, glutathione dehydrogenase (ascorbate), homeostasis, isomerization, membrane proteins, mutants, oxidation, oxygen, peroxidase, phenotype, photosystem II, reactive oxygen species, stress response, translation (genetics)
KEY MESSAGE : The role of LTO1/ At VKOR-DsbA in ROS homeostasis and in redox regulation of cysteine-containing proteins in chloroplast was studied in lto1 - 2 mutant, and a potential target of LTO1 was captured. A chloroplast membrane protein LTO1/AtVKOR-DsbA encoded by the gene At4g35760 was recently found to be an oxidoreductase and involved in assembly of PSII. Here, the growth of a mutant lto1-2 line of Arabidopsis was found to be severely stunted and transgenic complementation ultimately demonstrated the phenotype changes were due to this gene. A proteomic experiment identified 23 proteins presenting a differential abundance in lto1-2 compared with wild-type plants, including components in PSII and proteins scavenging active oxygen. Three scavengers of active oxygen, L-ascorbate peroxidase 1, peroxisomal catalase 2, dehydroascorbate reductase 1, are reduced in lto1-2 plants, corresponding to high levels of accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The photosynthetic activities of PSII and the quantity of core protein D1 decreased significantly in lto1-2. Further investigation showed the synthesis of D1 was not affected in mutants both at transcription and translation levels. The soluble DsbA-like domain of LTO1 was found to have reduction, oxidation and isomerization activities, and could promote the formation of disulfide bonds in a lumenal protein, FKBP13. A potential target of LTO1 was captured which was involving in chlorophyll degradation and photooxidative stress response. Experimental results imply that LTO1 plays important roles in redox regulation, ROS homeostasis and maintenance of PSII.