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Reversible σ-Bond Formation in Bowl-Shaped π-Radical Cations: The Effects of Curved and Planar Structures
- Yokoi, Hiroki, Hiroto, Satoru, Shinokubo, Hiroshi
- Journal of the American Chemical Society 2018 v.140 no.13 pp. 4649-4655
- Lewis bases, X-ray diffraction, ambient temperature, carbon, cations, dimerization, free radicals, methanol, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
- The reversible formation of σ-bonds between organic radicals has been widely investigated. However, reports on the formation of σ-dimers from delocalized π-radical cations are scarce. Herein, we report the reversible σ-dimerization behavior of a bowl-shaped π-radical cation generated from a nitrogen-embedded buckybowl, both in the crystalline state and in solution. The detailed structure of the σ-dimer in the crystalline state was determined by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The monomeric radical cation exists predominantly in solution at room temperature, while dimerization of the radical cations occurs through carbon–carbon σ-bond formation upon reducing the temperature. ¹H NMR and optical spectroscopy measurements confirmed the formation of a σ-dimer at low temperature. Comparative studies with a similar yet planar π-conjugated system suggested that the curved structure of the bowl-shaped π-radical cation facilitates the σ-dimerization at one of the internal sp²-hybridized carbon atoms. This trend was also observed for the nucleophilic addition reaction of methanol to the π-radical cations. The methoxylation reaction proceeded only for the curved π-radical cation. Theoretical calculations revealed that the large relief of structural strain at the α-carbon atom during the dimerization or nucleophilic addition reactions accelerated the bond formation at the internal carbon atom of the curved radical cation.