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Inducible promoters and functional genomic approaches for the genetic engineering of filamentous fungi

Kluge, Janina, Terfehr, Dominik, Kück, Ulrich
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2018 v.102 no.15 pp. 6357-6372
biochemical pathways, biosynthesis, carbon, data collection, fungi, genes, genetic engineering, genetic variation, genomics, industrial applications, mammals, mycology, promoter regions, proteins, secondary metabolites
In industry, filamentous fungi have a prominent position as producers of economically relevant primary or secondary metabolites. Particularly, the advent of genetic engineering of filamentous fungi has led to a growing number of molecular tools to adopt filamentous fungi for biotechnical applications. Here, we summarize recent developments in fungal biology, where fungal host systems were genetically manipulated for optimal industrial applications. Firstly, available inducible promoter systems depending on carbon sources are mentioned together with various adaptations of the Tet-Off and Tet-On systems for use in different industrial fungal host systems. Subsequently, we summarize representative examples, where diverse expression systems were used for the production of heterologous products, including proteins from mammalian systems. In addition, the progressing usage of genomics and functional genomics data for strain improvement strategies are addressed, for the identification of biosynthesis genes and their related metabolic pathways. Functional genomic data are further used to decipher genomic differences between wild-type and high-production strains, in order to optimize endogenous metabolic pathways that lead to the synthesis of pharmaceutically relevant end products. Lastly, we discuss how molecular data sets can be used to modify products for optimized applications.