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Chemical characterization of PM2.5 from a southern coastal city of China: applications of modeling and chemical tracers in demonstration of regional transport

Zhou, Jiamao, Ho, Steven Sai Hang, Cao, Junji, Zhao, Zhuzi, Zhao, Shuyu, Zhu, Chongshu, Wang, Qiyuan, Liu, Suixin, Zhang, Ting, Zhao, Youzhi, Wang, Ping, Tie, Xuexi
Environmental science and pollution research international 2018 v.25 no.21 pp. 20591-20605
acidity, aerosols, air pollution, ammonia, carbon, case studies, chemical analysis, emissions, neutralization, particulates, pollutants, reaction mechanisms, relative humidity, river deltas, rivers, thermodynamic models, tracer techniques, wind, China
An intensive sampling campaign of airborne fine particles (PM₂.₅) was conducted at Sanya, a coastal city in Southern China, from January to February 2012. Chemical analyses and mass reconstruction were used identify potential pollution sources and investigate atmospheric reaction mechanisms. A thermodynamic model indicated that low ammonia and high relative humidity caused the aerosols be acidic and that drove heterogeneous reactions which led to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosol. Relationships among neutralization ratios, free acidity, and air-mass trajectories suggest that the atmosphere at Sanya was impacted by both local and regional emissions. Three major transport pathways were identified, and flow from the northeast (from South China) typically brought the most polluted air to Sanya. A case study confirmed strong impact from South China (e.g., Pearl River Delta region) (contributed 76.8% to EC, and then this result can be extended to primary pollutants) when the northeast winds were dominant. The Weather Research Forecasting Black carbon model and trace organic markers were used to apportion local pollution versus regional contributions. Results of the study offer new insights into the atmospheric conditions and air pollution at this coastal city.