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Characterizing the proteome and oxi-proteome of apple in response to a host (Penicillium expansum) and a non-host (Penicillium digitatum) pathogen

Buron-Moles, Gemma, Wisniewski, Michael, Viñas, Inmaculada, Teixidó, Neus, Usall, Josep, Droby, Samir, Torres, Rosario
Journal of proteomics 2015 v.114 pp. 136
Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium expansum, apples, biotic stress, host-pathogen relationships, plant pathogenic fungi, plant proteins, postharvest diseases, protein content, proteome, proteomics, quantitative analysis, reactive oxygen species, transcription (genetics)
Apples are subjected to both abiotic and biotic stresses during the postharvest period, which lead to large economic losses worldwide. To obtain biochemical insights into apple defense response, we monitored the protein abundance changes (proteome), as well as the protein carbonyls (oxi-proteome) formed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ‘Golden Smoothee’ apple in response to wounding, Penicillium expansum (host) and Penicillium digitatum (non-host) pathogens with select transcriptional studies. To examine the biological relevance of the results, we described quantitative and oxidative protein changes into the gene ontology functional categories, as well as into de KEGG pathways.We identified 26 proteins that differentially changed in abundance in response to wounding, P. expansum or P. digitatum infection. While these changes showed some similarities between the apple responses and abiotic and biotic stresses, Mal d 1.03A case, other proteins as Mal d 1.03E and EF-Tu were specifically induced in response to P. digitatum infection.Using a protein carbonyl detection method based on fluorescent Bodipy, we detected and identified 27 oxidized proteins as sensitive ROS targets. These ROS target proteins were related to metabolism processes, suggesting that this process plays a leading role in apple fruit defense response against abiotic and biotic stresses. ACC oxidase and two glutamine synthetases showed the highest protein oxidation level in response to P. digitatum infection.Documenting changes in the proteome and, specifically in oxi-proteome of apple can provide information that can be used to better understand how impaired protein functions may affect apple defense mechanisms. Possible mechanisms by which these modified proteins are involved in fruit defense response are discussed.Mechanical damage in apple fruits is linked annually to large economic losses due to opportunistic infection by postharvest pathogens, such as P. expansum. Despite the current use of chemical fungicides and the implementation of new alternative strategies, blue mold remains a critical disease of these stored fruits worldwide. Actual trends are focused on acquiring the knowledge of the host–pathogen interactions because it may help on finding new rational and environmentally friendly control alternatives. Despite the economic importance of some postharvest diseases, proteomics has only been applied in a few cases to study fruit–pathogen interactions. On the one hand, this is the first study that monitored changes at the proteome and oxi-proteome level in ‘Golden Smoothee’ apple fruits in response to P. expansum (compatible) and P. digitatum (non-host) pathogens. On the other hand, the main technological innovation of the reported research is the detection and quantification of oxidized (carbonylated) proteins to assess protein oxidative damage, avoiding the immunoblotting technique.The importance of the biological process investigated lies in the different mechanisms induced in fruit in response to P. expansum and P. digitatum. Results revealed that fruit recognizes and reacts to P. expansum in a similar manner to wounding, while its response to P. digitatum exhibits few differences in the protein profile. Documenting changes in the proteome and, specifically in oxi-proteome of apple can provide information that can be used to better understand how impaired protein functions may affect apple defense mechanisms. It also provides new biomarkers for oxidative damage mainly caused by the oxidative response occurring in fruit tissue in response to a host and a non-host pathogen.