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Key Roles of Size and Crystallinity of Nanosized Iron Hydr(oxides) Stabilized by Humic Substances in Iron Bioavailability to Plants
- Kulikova, Natalia A., Polyakov, Alexander Yu., Lebedev, Vasily A., Abroskin, Dmitry P., Volkov, Dmitry S., Pankratov, Denis A., Klein, Olga I., Senik, Svetlana V., Sorkina, Tatiana A., Garshev, Alexey V., Veligzhanin, Alexey A., Garcia Mina, Jose M., Perminova, Irina V.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.51 pp. 11157-11169
- X-ray diffraction, bioactive properties, bioavailability, biosynthesis, cell walls, crystal structure, humic substances, iron, iron hydroxides, leaves, lipids, nanomaterials, nutrient deficiencies, oxides, photosynthesis, plant nutrition, polymers, protocols, roots, soil, spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, wheat
- Availability of Fe in soil to plants is closely related to the presence of humic substances (HS). Still, the systematic data on applicability of iron-based nanomaterials stabilized with HS as a source for plant nutrition are missing. The goal of our study was to establish a connection between properties of iron-based materials stabilized by HS and their bioavailability to plants. We have prepared two samples of leonardite HS-stabilized iron-based materials with substantially different properties using the reported protocols and studied their physical chemical state in relation to iron uptake and other biological effects. We used Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, SAXS, and TEM to conclude on iron speciation, size, and crystallinity. One material (Fe-HA) consisted of polynuclear iron(III) (hydr)oxide complexes, so-called ferric polymers, distributed in HS matrix. These complexes are composed of predominantly amorphous small-size components (<5 nm) with inclusions of larger crystalline particles (the mean size of (11 ± 4) nm). The other material was composed of well-crystalline feroxyhyte (δ’-FeOOH) NPs with mean transverse sizes of (35 ± 20) nm stabilized by small amounts of HS. Bioavailability studies were conducted on wheat plants under conditions of iron deficiency. The uptake studies have shown that small and amorphous ferric polymers were readily translocated into the leaves on the level of Fe-EDTA, whereas relatively large and crystalline feroxyhyte NPs were mostly sorbed on the roots. The obtained data are consistent with the size exclusion limits of cell wall pores (5–20 nm). Both samples demonstrated distinct beneficial effects with respect to photosynthetic activity and lipid biosynthesis. The obtained results might be of use for production of iron-based nanomaterials stabilized by HS with the tailored iron availability to plants. They can be applied as the only source for iron nutrition as well as in combination with the other elements, for example, for industrial production of “nanofortified” macrofertilizers (NPK).