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Phosphorylation of Isoflavones by Bacillus subtilis BCRC 80517 May Represent Xenobiotic Metabolism

Hsu, Chen, Wu, Bo-Yuan, Chang, Yu-Chuan, Chang, Chi-Fon, Chiou, Tai-Ying, Su, Nan-Wei
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.1 pp. 127-137
Bacillus subtilis, bioavailability, biotransformation, carbon, cell growth, daidzein, genistein, glucosides, human health, metabolism, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, phosphorus, phosphorylation, stable isotopes, water solubility, xenobiotics
The soy isoflavones daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN) have beneficial effects on human health. However, their oral bioavailability is hampered by their low aqueous solubility. Our previous study revealed two water-soluble phosphorylated conjugates of isoflavones, daidzein 7-O-phosphate and genistein 7-O-phosphate, generated via biotransformation by Bacillus subtilis BCRC80517 cultivated with isoflavones. In this study, two novel derivatives of isoflavones, daidzein 4′-O-phosphate and genistein 4′-O-phosphate, were identified by HPLC-ESI–MS/MS and ¹H, ¹³C, and ³¹P NMR, and their biotransformation roadmaps were proposed. Primarily, isoflavone glucosides were deglycosylated and then phosphorylated predominantly into 7-O-phosphate conjugates with traces of 4′-O-phosphate conjugates. Inevitably, trace quantities of glucosides were converted into 6″-O-succinyl glucosides. GEN was more efficiently phosphorylated than DAI. Nevertheless, the presence of GEN prolonged the time until the exponential phase of cell growth, whereas the other isoflavones showed little effect on cell growth. Our findings provide new insights into the novel microbial phosphorylation of isoflavones involved in xenobiotic metabolism.