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Grape Berry Acclimation to Excessive Solar Irradiance Leads to Repartitioning between Major Flavonoid Groups

Reshef, N., Agam, N., Fait, A.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.14 pp. 3624-3636
acclimation, anthocyanins, biochemical pathways, biosynthesis, color, flavanols, flavonols, fruits, grapes, light quality, metabolomics, microclimate, micrometeorology, ripening, shade, solar radiation, viticulture, wines
Warm viticulture regions are associated with inferior wines, resulting from the interaction between microclimate and fruit biochemistry. Solar irradiance triggers biosynthetic processes in the fruit and dominates its thermal balance. Therefore, deciphering its impact on fruit metabolism is pivotal to develop strategies for fruit protection and ameliorate its quality traits. Here, we modified light quality and intensity in the fruit-zone and integrated micrometeorology with grape and wine metabolomics, allowing a complete assessment, from field to bottle. We analyzed the dynamics of fruit’s adaptation to altered conditions during ripening and constructed temporal-based metabolic networks. Micrometeorological modifications shifted the balance between the major flavonoids, associating increased solar exposure with lower levels of anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols, and higher flavonols. Differences were fixed from 2 weeks postveraison until harvest, suggesting a controlled acclimation response rather than external modulation. Differences in grape composition manifested in the wine and resulted in higher color intensity and improved wine hue under partial shading.