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Neuroprotective Effect of Hydroxytyrosol in Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy: Relationship with Cardiovascular Biomarkers
- González-Correa, José Antonio, Rodríguez-Pérez, María Dolores, Márquez-Estrada, Lucía, López-Villodres, Juan Antonio, Reyes, José Julio, Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Guillermo, Fernández-Bolaños, Juan, De La Cruz, José Pedro
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.3 pp. 637-644
- biomarkers, diabetic retinopathy, extracellular matrix, ganglia, neuroprotective effect, platelet aggregation, prostacyclin, rats, regression analysis, retina
- The aim of the study was to test the neuroprotective effect of hydroxytyrosol (HT) on experimental diabetic retinopathy. Animals were divided in four groups: (1) control nondiabetic rats, (2) streptozotocin-diabetic rats (DR), (3) DR treated with 1 mg/kg/day p.o. HT, and (4) DR treated with 5 mg/kg/day p.o. HT. Treatment with HT was started 7 days before inducing diabetes and was maintained for 2 months. In the DR group, total area occupied by extracellular matrix was increased, area occupied by retinal cells was decreased; both returned to near-control values in DR rats treated with HT. The number of retinal ganglion cells in DR was significantly lower (44%) than in the control group, and this decrease was smaller after HT treatment (34% and 9.1%). Linear regression analysis showed that prostacyclin, platelet aggregation, peroxynitrites, and the dose of 5 mg/kg/day HT significantly influenced retinal ganglion cell count. In conclusion, HT exerted a neuroprotective effect on diabetic retinopathy, and this effect correlated significantly with changes in some cardiovascular biomarkers.