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Coencapsulation of (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and Quercetin in Particle-Stabilized W/O/W Emulsion Gels: Controlled Release and Bioaccessibility
- Chen, Xing, McClements, David Julian, Wang, Jian, Zou, Liqiang, Deng, Sumeng, Liu, Wei, Yan, Chi, Zhu, Yuqing, Cheng, Ce, Liu, Chengmei
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.14 pp. 3691-3699
- bioavailability, emulsions, encapsulation, epigallocatechin gallate, gastrointestinal system, gelatin, gliadin, hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, lipophilicity, nanoparticles, oils, osmotic stress, pH, polyglycerol polyricinoleate, quercetin, separation, solubility, surfactants, wheat
- Particle-stabilized W₁/O/W₂ emulsion gels were fabricated using a two-step procedure: (i) a W₁/O emulsion was formed containing saccharose (for osmotic stress balance) and gelatin (as a gelling agent) in the aqueous phase and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (a lipophilic surfactant) in the oil phase; (ii) this W₁/O emulsion was then homogenized with another water phase (W₂) containing wheat gliadin nanoparticles (hydrophilic emulsifier). The gliadin nanoparticles in the external aqueous phase aggregated at pH 5.5, which led to the formation of particle-stabilized W₁/O/W₂ emulsion gels with good stability to phase separation. These emulsion gels were then used to coencapsulate a hydrophilic bioactive (epigallocatechin-3-gallate, EGCG) in the internal aqueous phase (encapsulation efficiency = 65.5%) and a hydrophobic bioactive (quercetin) in the oil phase (encapsulation efficiency = 97.2%). The emulsion gels improved EGCG chemical stability and quercetin solubility under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, which led to a 2- and 4-fold increase in their effective bioaccessibility, respectively.