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Physicochemical Properties of Whey-Protein-Stabilized Astaxanthin Nanodispersion and Its Transport via a Caco-2 Monolayer

Shen, Xue, Zhao, Changhui, Lu, Jing, Guo, Mingruo
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.6 pp. 1472-1478
astaxanthin, bioactive compounds, bioavailability, cytotoxicity, differential scanning calorimetry, digestion, encapsulation, human cell lines, lipophilicity, models, particle size, pepsin, permeability, polymerization, trypsin, whey protein isolate, zeta potential
Astaxanthin nanodispersion was prepared using whey protein isolate (WPI) and polymerized whey protein (PWP) through an emulsification–evaporation technique. The physicochemical properties of the astaxanthin nanodispersion were evaluated, and the transport of astaxanthin was assessed using a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The astaxanthin nanodispersions stabilized by WPI and PWP (2.5%, w/w) had a small particle size (121 ± 4.9 and 80.4 ± 5.9 nm, respectively), negative ζ potential (−19.3 ± 1.5 and −35.0 ± 2.2 mV, respectively), and high encapsulation efficiency (92.1 ± 2.9 and 93.5 ± 2.4%, respectively). Differential scanning calorimetry curves indicated that amorphous astaxanthin existed in both astaxanthin nanodispersions. Whey-protein-stabilized astaxanthin nanodispersion showed resistance to pepsin digestion but readily released astaxanthin after trypsin digestion. The nanodispersions showed no cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells at a protein concentration below 10 mg/mL. WPI- and PWP-stabilized nanodispersions improved the apparent permeability coefficient (Pₐₚₚ) of Caco-2 cells to astaxanthin by 10.3- and 16.1-fold, respectively. The results indicated that whey-protein-stabilized nanodispersion is a good vehicle to deliver lipophilic bioactive compounds, such as astaxanthin, and to improve their bioavailability.