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Transformation, Conjugation, and Sequestration Following the Uptake of Triclocarban by Jalapeno Pepper Plants
- Huynh, Khang, Banach, Emily, Reinhold, Dawn
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.16 pp. 4032-4043
- Capsicum annuum, carbon, fruits, glycosylation, human health, humans, hydroponics, hydroxylation, isotope labeling, leaves, metabolites, pepper, plant tissues, radionuclides, risk, roots, stems
- Plant uptake and metabolism of emerging organic contaminants, such as personal-care products, pose potential risks to human health. In this study, jalapeno pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants cultured in hydroponic media were exposed to both ¹⁴C-labeled and unlabeled triclocarban (TCC) to investigate the accumulation, distribution, and metabolism of TCC following plant uptake. The results revealed that TCC was detected in all plant tissues; after 12 weeks, the TCC concentrations in root, stem, leaf, and fruit tissues were 19.74 ± 2.26, 0.26 ± 0.04, 0.11 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. More importantly, a substantial portion of the TCC taken up by plants was metabolized, especially in the stems, leaves, and fruits. Hydroxylated TCC (e.g., 2′-OH TCC and 6-OH TCC) and glycosylated OH-TCC were the main phase I and phase II metabolites in plant tissues, respectively. Bound (or nonextractable) residues of TCC accounted for approximately 44.6, 85.6, 69.0, and 47.5% of all TCC species that accumulated in roots, stems, leaves, and fruits, respectively. The concentrations of TCC metabolites were more than 20 times greater than the concentrations of TCC in the above-ground tissues of the jalapeno pepper plants after 12 weeks; crucially, approximately 95.6% of the TCC was present as metabolites in the fruits. Consequently, human exposure to TCC through the consumption of pepper fruits is expected to be substantially higher when phytometabolism is considered.