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Selective Extraction and Purification of Azaspiracids from Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) Using Boric Acid Gel

Miles, Christopher O., Kilcoyne, Jane, McCarron, Pearse, Giddings, Sabrina D., Waaler, Thor, Rundberget, Thomas, Samdal, Ingunn A., Løvberg, Kjersti E.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.11 pp. 2962-2969
Azadinium spinosum, Mytilus edulis, azaspiracid, boric acid, carboxylic acids, ciguatoxin, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fractionation, gels, glycols, glycosides, liquid chromatography, monitoring, mussels, natural toxicants, okadaic acid, quantitative analysis, tandem mass spectrometry, tetrodotoxin, trichothecenes
Azaspiracids belong to a family of more than 50 polyether toxins originating from marine dinoflagellates such as Azadinium spinosum. All of the azaspiracids reported thus far contain a 21,22-dihydroxy group. Boric acid gel can bind selectively to compounds containing vic-diols or α-hydroxycarboxylic acids via formation of reversible boronate complexes. Here we report use of the gel to selectively capture and release azaspiracids from extracts of blue mussels. Analysis of the extracts and fractions by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS) showed that this procedure resulted in an excellent cleanup of the azaspiracids in the extract. Analysis by enzyme-linked immunoasorbent assay (ELISA) and LC–MS indicated that most azaspiracid analogues were recovered in good yield by this procedure. The capacity of boric acid gel for azaspiracids was at least 50 μg/g, making this procedure suitable for use in the early stages of preparative purification of azaspiracids. In addition to its potential for concentration of dilute samples, the extensive cleanup provided by boric acid gel fractionation of azaspiracids in mussel samples almost eliminated matrix effects during subsequent LC–MS and could be expected to reduce matrix effects during ELISA analysis. The method may therefore prove useful for quantitative analysis of azaspiracids as part of monitoring programs. Although LC–MS data showed that okadaic acid analogues also bound to the gel, this was much less efficient than for azaspiracids under the conditions used. The boric acid gel methodology is potentially applicable to other important groups of natural toxins containing diols including ciguatoxins, palytoxins, pectenotoxins, tetrodotoxin, trichothecenes, and toxin glycosides.