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Andrographolide Antagonizes TNF-α-Induced IL-8 via Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase/ROS/NF-κB and Src/MAPKs/AP-1 Axis in Human Colorectal Cancer HCT116 Cells

Yuan, Miaomiao, Meng, Wei, Liao, Wenzhen, Lian, Sen
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.20 pp. 5139-5148
Andrographis paniculata, NAD(P)H oxidase (H2O2-forming), NADP (coenzyme), andrographolide, angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory activity, antineoplastic activity, chemical constituents of plants, colorectal neoplasms, functional foods, humans, interleukin-8, messenger RNA, mitogen-activated protein kinase, mutagenesis, neoplasm cells, phosphorylation, protein synthesis, reactive oxygen species, signal transduction, transcription (genetics), transcription factor NF-kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, China, India, Japan, Korean Peninsula
Andrographis paniculata Nees is used as a functional food in Japan, Korea, India, and China. Andrographolide, a naturally occurring phytochemical identified in Andrographis paniculata, has been discovered to present anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Highly expressed interleukin (IL-8) has been detected in colorectal cancer and is implicated in angiogenesis. However, the effect and molecular mechanisms of IL-8 expression by andrographolide remain obscure in human colorectal cancer cells. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of andrographolide on TNF-α-induced IL-8 expression and its underlying mechanisms. We found that andrographolide concentration-dependently inhibited TNF-α-induced IL-8 mRNA (2.23 ± 0.15 fold at 20 μM) and protein expression (4.78 ± 0.31 fold at 20 μM) and reduced the IL-8 transcriptional activity (2.59 ± 0.25 fold at 20 μM). TNF-α stimulated the membrane translocation of p47ᵖʰᵒˣ to activate reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing NADPH oxidase (NOX). Furthermore, TNF-α induced Src and MAPKs (Erk1/2, p38 MAPK) phosphorylation, as well as NF-κB and AP-1 binding activities. We found that NF-κB and AP-1 were the critical transcription factors for TNF-α-induced IL-8 expression. Specific inhibitors and mutagenesis studies indicated that Src, Erk1/2, and p38 MAPK are related to TNF-α-induced IL-8. NOX-derived ROS and Src/MAPKs (Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK) functioned as upstream activators of NF-κB and AP-1, respectively. Taken together, andrographolide antagonizes TNF-α-induced IL-8 via inhibition of NADPH oxidase/ROS/NF-κB and Src/MAPKs/AP-1 signaling pathways in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells and then suppresses angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment.