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Comparative Study on the Cryoprotective Effects of Three Recombinant Antifreeze Proteins from Pichia pastoris GS115 on Hydrated Gluten Proteins during Freezing

Liu, Mei, Liang, Ying, Zhang, Hui, Wu, Gangcheng, Wang, Li, Qian, Haifeng, Qi, Xiguang
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.24 pp. 6151-6161
Daucus carota, Epinephelus coioides, Pichia pastoris, Tenebrio molitor, antifreeze proteins, carrots, cryoprotectants, crystals, differential scanning calorimetry, freezing, gliadin, gluten, glutenins, hysteresis, ice, melting, microstructure, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, physicochemical properties, rheological properties, rheometers, scanning electron microscopy, water content
During the freezing process, ice crystal formation leads to the deterioration in physicochemical properties and networks of gluten proteins. The cryoprotective effects of recombinant carrot (Daucus carota) antifreeze protein (rCaAFP), type II antifreeze protein from Epinephelus coioides (rFiAFP), and Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein (rTmAFP) produced from Pichia pastoris GS115 on hydrated gluten, glutenin, and gliadin during freezing were investigated. The thermal hysteresis (TH) activity and ice crystals’ morphology modification ability of recombinant antifreeze proteins (rAFPs) were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and cryomicroscope, respectively. The freezing and melting properties, water state, rheological properties, and microstructure of hydrated gluten proteins were studied by DSC, low field nuclear magnetic resonance, rheometer, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The rTmAFP exhibited strongest TH activity and ice crystals’ morphology modification ability, followed by rFiAFP and rCaAFP. The addition of the three rAFPs caused freezing hysteresis and weakened the damage of freezing to the networks of hydrated gluten, glutenin, and gliadin. During freezing, the cryoprotective effects of the three rAFPs on the freezable water content, water mobility and distribution, and rheological properties of hydrated gluten were achieved by protecting these corresponding properties of hydrated glutenin. Among the three rAFPs, rTmAFP was most effective in the cryoprotective activities on hydrated gluten proteins during freezing. The results demonstrate the potential of these rAFPs, especially rTmAFP, to preserve the above properties of hydrated gluten proteins during the freezing process.