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The Mode of Action of Adjuvants—Relevance of Physicochemical Properties for Effects on the Foliar Application, Cuticular Permeability, and Greenhouse Performance of Pinoxaden
- Arand, Katja, Asmus, Elisabeth, Popp, Christian, Schneider, Daniel, Riederer, Markus
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.23 pp. 5770-5777
- Prunus laurocerasus, adjuvants, agrochemicals, bioavailability, droplets, esters, foliar application, greenhouse experimentation, greenhouses, mechanism of action, permeability, phosphates, physicochemical properties, polysorbates
- We comprehensively studied the complexity of the mode of action of adjuvants by uncoupling the parameters contributing to the spray process during foliar application of agrochemicals. The ethoxylated sorbitan esters Tween 20 and Tween 80 improved the efficiency of pinoxaden (PXD) in controlling grass-weed species in greenhouse experiments by aiding retention, having humectant properties, maintaining the bioavailability, and increasing the cuticular penetration of PXD. The nonethoxylated sorbitan esters Span 20 and Span 80 showed minimal effects on retention, droplet hydration, or cuticular penetration, resulting in reduced PXD effects in the greenhouse. Tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (TEHP) does not contribute much to retention and spreading but strongly enhances the diffusion of PXD across isolated P. laurocerasus cuticular membranes. As TEHP was most efficient in controlling the growth of grass-weed species, we propose that the direct effect of penetration aids on cuticular permeation plays a key role in the efficiency of foliar-applied agrochemicals.