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Incorporating Bioaccessibility into Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Rice (Oryza sativa L.): A Probabilistic-Based Analysis

Li, Tianyuan, Song, Yinxian, Yuan, Xuyin, Li, Jizhou, Ji, Junfeng, Fu, Xiaowen, Zhang, Qiang, Guo, Shuhai
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.22 pp. 5683-5690
Oryza sativa, arsenic, bioavailability, cadmium, chromium, copper, health effects assessments, heavy metals, human health, lead, morbidity, mortality, neoplasms, nickel, rice, risk, zinc
A systematic investigation into total and bioaccessible heavy metal concentrations in rice grains harvested from heavy metal-contaminated regions was carried out to assess the potential health risk to local residents. Arsenic, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations were within acceptable levels while Cd and Ni concentrations appeared to be much higher than in other studies. The bioaccessibity of As, Cd, and Ni was high (>25%) and could be well predicted from their total concentrations. The noncarcinogenic risk posed by As and Cd was significant. The carcinogenic risk posed by all bioaccessible heavy metals at the fifth percentile was 10-fold higher than the acceptable level, and Cd and Ni were the major contributors. The contribution of each metal to the combined carcinogenic risk indicates that taking pertinent precautions for different types of cancer, aimed at individuals with different levels of exposure to heavy metals, will greatly reduce morbidity and mortality rates.