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Exploration of the Relationship between Intestinal Colostrum or Milk, and Serum Metabolites in Neonatal Calves by Metabolomics Analysis

Qi, Yunxia, Zhao, Xiaowei, Huang, Dongwei, Pan, Xiaocheng, Yang, Yongxin, Zhao, Huiling, Hu, Han, Cheng, Guanglong
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.27 pp. 7200-7208
alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, biosynthesis, blood flow, blood serum, calves, cinnamic acid, citrates, colostrum, gamma-aminobutyric acid, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, glutamic acid, histidine, immunoglobulins, ingestion, isoleucine, leucine, liquid chromatography, metabolites, metabolome, metabolomics, methionine, milk, phenylalanine, phosphorylcholine, small intestine, tandem mass spectrometry, thymine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine
In contrast to colostral immunoglobulins, changes in metabolite composition of ingested colostrum in the gut have received little attention. Here, we characterized the metabolite profiles of colostrum and milk, ingested colostrum and milk, and serum of neonatal calves by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics approaches. Colostrum and milk underwent similar changes in metabolite profiles in the gut after being ingested. These changes were characterized by increases in methionine, glutamate, thymine, and phosphorylcholine. After ingestion, colostrum concentrations of several metabolites, such as γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, cinnamic acid, and thymine increased, whereas concentrations of d-ribose, and arginine decreased. These increases and decreases occurred in a time-dependent manner and were associated with alanine, aspartate, glutamate, and pyrimidine metabolism, and valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, respectively. Meanwhile, similar changes in serum metabolites were also observed in neonatal calves fed colostrum, which implies that colostrum metabolites are transported across the small intestine and into the bloodstream. In addition, several metabolites of ingested milk were detected in the gut, and were also transferred to the bloodstream. These metabolites were related to phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, the citrate cycle, and histidine metabolism. These findings reveal that the serum metabolome of neonatal calves’ changes as a result of ingesting colostrum, which can provide health-related benefits in early life.