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Floral resources and risk of exposure to pesticides for Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier 1836 in a Cerrado of São Paulo (Brazil)

da Luz, Cynthia Fernandes Pinto, Fidalgo, Adriana de Oliveira, Silva, Shirley Ambrosia Yovetti, Rodrigues, Sandra dos Santos, Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira
Grana 2018 v.57 no.5 pp. 377-400
Anadenanthera, Cecropia, Cordia, Eucalyptus, Melastomataceae, Melipona quadrifasciata, Mimosa scabrella, Myrcia, Sapindaceae, Schefflera, Sida, Vernonia, bees, cerrado, crops, flora, forests, honey, indigenous species, introduced species, nectar, orchards, pesticides, pollen, pollinators, principal component analysis, propolis, risk, Brazil
Honey and bee bread samples from storage pots of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides were collected monthly from April 2015 to May 2016 in the Mogi Guaçu Biological Reserve (22º 10ʹ S, 47º 11ʹ W). The flora in the site is characteristic of the Atlantic Forest with preserved areas of savanna-like vegetation surrounded by commercial forests, orchards and various crops of exotic and native plants. Samples were analysed with the use of melissopalynological methodology and 46 pollen types from 38 genera and 30 families were identified in 25 honey samples. Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Myrtaceae, Sapindaceae showed the greatest pollen richness in honey. Predominant nectariferous pollen types were Anadenanthera, Cordia, Eucalyptus, Mimosa scabrella, Schefflera, Sida, Serjania and Vernonia. Twenty-eight types of pollen from 21 genera and 19 families were identified in 22 bee bread samples. Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Myrtaceae showed the highest pollen richness. Anadenanthera, Cecropia, Eucalyptus, Melastomataceae, Mimosa scabrella, Mimosa verrucosa and Myrcia were the most frequent polliniferous pollen types. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated that honey and pollen samples formed two main groups of similarity, mainly due to Eucalyptus’ nectar and pollen of Melastomataceae, respectively. Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides collected nectar and pollen from the preserved areas as well as in the secondary and ‘ruderal’ vegetation and in cultivated forests/fields, suggesting their importance as pollinators both of native flora and exotic species. The use of trophic resources of plants grown with pesticides is a concern for the conservation of these species of bee and should be better studied.