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Influence of Soil Biochar Aging on Sorption of the Herbicides MCPA, Nicosulfuron, Terbuthylazine, Indaziflam, and Fluoroethyldiaminotriazine

Carmen Trigo, Kurt A. Spokas, Lucia Cox, William C. Koskinen
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2014 v.62 no.45 pp. 10855-10860
terbuthylazine, absorbents, soil remediation, soil pollution, surface area, sorption, porosity, herbicide residues, soil, biochar, carbon, MCPA (herbicide), macadamia nuts, metabolites, nicosulfuron
Sorption of four herbicides and a metabolite of indaziflam on a fresh macadamia nut biochar and biochars aged one or two years in soil was characterized. On fresh biochar, the sorption was terbuthylazine (Kd = 595) > indaziflam (Kd = 162) > MCPA (Kd = 7.5) > fluoroethyldiaminotriazine (Kd = 0.26) and nicosulfuron (Kd = 0). Biochar surface area increased with aging attributed to the loss of a surface film. This was also manifested in a decline in water extractable organic carbon with aging. Correspondingly, an increase in the aromaticity was observed. The higher surface area and porosity in aged biochar increased sorption of indaziflam (KdBC-2yr = 237) and fluoroethyldiaminotriazine (KdBC-1yr = 1.2 and KdBC-2yr = 3.0), but interestingly decreased sorption of terbuthylazine (KdBC-1yr = 312 and KdBC-2yr = 221) and MCPA (KdBC-1yr = 2 and KdBC-2yr = 2). These results will facilitate development of biochars for specific remediation purposes.