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Comparative Assay of Antioxidant Packages for Dimer of Extolide Esters

Steven C. Cermak, Jakob W. Bredsguard, Robert O. Dunn, Travis Thompson, Kati A. Feken, Katie L. Roth, James A. Kenar, Terry A. Isbell, Rex E. Murray
Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 2014 v.91 no.12 pp. 2101-2109
additives, antioxidants, biodiesel, coconuts, differential scanning calorimetry, dimerization, estolides, lubricants, oxidation, petroleum, synthetic products, temperature
A series of 26 different antioxidants and commercial antioxidant packages designed for petroleum-based materials, containing both natural and synthetic-based materials, were evaluated with dimeric coconut-oleic estolide 2-ethylhexyl ester (2-EH), a bio-based material. The different antioxidants were categorized into different classes of phenolic, aminic, and blended/others materials. The oxidation onset temperatures (OT) using non-isothermal pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) were measured and recorded under previously reported standard conditions. The aminic series gave the best resistance to oxidation as defined by the PDSC method with OT of 246.6 and 244.7 °C for the best two performers, which was a 38 °C improvement over the uninhibited or unformulated dimer estolide material. The phenolic series, containing most of the naturally occurring antioxidants, was the least successful formulation package for the dimer estolide. The blended/other materials, which were specifically designed for petroleum-based lubricants, did not have the best OT, since the estolides and other bio-based materials interact differently than their petroleum counterparts. A number of potential antioxidants have been identified as useful additives for the estolides esters. The OT of the estolide and formulated materials correlated well with other bio-based materials such as biodiesel.