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Ethyl acetate fraction of Aframomum melegueta fruit ameliorates pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and major diabetes-related parameters in a type 2 diabetes model of rats

Mohammed, Aminu, Koorbanally, Neil Anthony, Islam, Md. Shahidul
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2015 v.175 pp. 518-527
Aframomum melegueta, blood glucose, blood lipids, blood serum, body weight, ethyl acetate, fructose, fruits, glucose tolerance, glycemic effect, glycogen, histopathology, insulin, insulin resistance, intraperitoneal injection, islets of Langerhans, leaves, liver, models, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, rats, streptozotocin, traditional medicine, Western Africa
In West Africa, various preparations of the fruit, seed and leaf of Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. are reputably used for the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) and other metabolic disorders. The present study evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of A. melegueta ethyl acetate fraction (AMEF) from fruit ethanolic extract in a type 2 diabetes (T2D) model of rats.T2D was induced in rats by feeding a 10% fructose solution ad libitum for two weeks followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40mg/kg body weight) and the animals were orally treated with 150 or 300mg/kg body weight (bw) of the AMEF once daily for four weeks.At the end of the intervention, diabetic untreated animals showed significantly higher serum glucose, serum fructosamine, LDH, CK-MB, serum lipids, liver glycogen, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), AI, CRI and lower serum insulin, pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA- β) and glucose tolerance ability compared to the normal animals. Histopathological examination of their pancreas revealed corresponding pathological changes in the islets and β-cells. These alterations were reverted to near-normal after the treatment of AMEF at 150 and 300mg/kg bw when, the effects were more pronounced at 300mg/kg bw compared to the 150mg/kg bw.The results of our study suggest that AMEF treatment at 300mg/kg bw showed potent anti-diabetic effect in a T2D model of rats.