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Studies of the effect of grasshopper abdominal secretion on wound healing with the use of murine model

Buszewska-Forajta, M., Siluk, D., Daghir-Wojtkowiak, E., Sejda, A., Staśkowiak, D., Biernat, W., Kaliszan, R.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2015 v.176 pp. 413-423
Chorthippus, allantoin, amino acids, analysis of variance, animal models, aqueous solutions, carbohydrates, dermis, drugs, ethanol, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, grasshoppers, hydrocarbons, hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, in vivo studies, inorganic acids, medicinal properties, mice, neutrophils, nucleosides, organic acids and salts, secretion, sterols, tissue repair, traditional medicine, Poland
Grasshopper, belonging to Chorthippus sp., is a widespread insect inhabiting Polish territory. According to folk knowledge and folk tales, the grasshopper abdominal secretion was used by villagers of Central and South-West Poland as a natural drug accelerating the wound healing process.In the reported study the hypothesis about beneficial properties of grasshopper abdominal secretion on hard to heal wounds was verified.The study was carried out with the use of a murine model (mice C57BL/6). In order to verify the beneficial properties of grasshopper abdominal secretion, the wounds of 8mm in diameter were formed on one side of each tested mouse. The influence of ethanolic extract of insects’ secretion on healing process was evaluated in comparison to ethanolic solution of allantoin and 30% aqueous solution of ethanol (medium). The observation was carried out over a 14 day period. Finally the statistical analysis (ANOVA) was carried out to highlight the differences in wound healing rate between applied preparations. Moreover, qualitative composition of grasshoppers’ secretion was studied with the use of GC/MS technique.During the first three days of observation, wounds treated with allantoin were healed with higher efficiency in comparison to ethanol and insect secretion preparations. The trend of healing changed from the 4th day of observation. Wounds treated with grasshoppers’ abdominal secretion were closuring faster than wounds treated with allantoin or ethanol. In this part of observation, in the case of allantoin and ethanol application, the wound healing efficiency was similar. Since the 9th day of experiment the measurement of wounds size was problematic, due to crust formation. Finally at the 14th day of the study, wounds were totally healed.Morphological study enabled to observe all the phases of healing. In the 5th and 8th day, the infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells in dermis was observed, which is characteristic for inflammatory phase of wound healing. On the 8th day of experiments, granulation of the tissue was clearly observed in the tested groups. Reepithelialization phase was observed from the 5th to 14th day, when the wound was totally healed.The analytical approach enabled to identify 38 compounds of hydrophobic or hydrophilic character. Among them, 6 amino acids, 14 organic acids and their derivatives, one sterol, 4 hydrocarbons, 5 carbohydrates, 2 inorganic acids, 4 alcohols, one diamine and one nucleoside were identified.The obtained results enabled to recognize the composition of grasshopper abdominal secretion. Some of the identified compounds possess therapeutic properties described in the literature. The performed in vivo study proved that application of insects secretion accelerates the healing process. The obtained results positively verified the scientific hypothesis based on ethnopharmacological premises about the beneficial properties of grasshopper abdominal secretion on wound healing process.