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Complete Kinetic Characterization of Enzyme Inhibition in a Single Isothermal Titration Calorimetric Experiment

Di Trani, Justin M., Moitessier, Nicolas, Mittermaier, Anthony K.
Analytical chemistry 2018 v.90 no.14 pp. 8430-8435
calorimetry, chemical reactions, drugs, enzyme inhibition, enzyme kinetics, heat flow, models, spectroscopy, titration, trypsin inhibitors
Techniques for rapidly measuring both the strength and mode of enzyme inhibitors are crucial to lead generation and optimization in drug development. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is emerging as a powerful tool for measuring enzyme kinetics with distinct advantages over traditional techniques. ITC measures heat flow, a feature of nearly all chemical reactions, and gives an instantaneous readout of enzyme velocity, eliminating the need for artificial substrates or postreaction processing. In principle, ITC is an ideal method for characterizing enzyme inhibition. However, existing ITC experiments are not well-suited to rapid throughput and few studies to date have employed this approach. We have developed a new ITC experiment, in which substrate and inhibitor are premixed in the injection syringe, that yields complete kinetic characterization of an enzyme inhibitor in an hour or less. This corresponds to savings in time and material of 5-fold or greater compared to previous ITC methods. We validated the approach using the trypsin inhibitor benzamidine as a model system, recapitulating both its competitive inhibition mode and binding constant. Our approach combines the rapid throughput of optimized spectroscopic assays with the universality and precision of ITC-based methods, providing substantially improved inhibitor characterization for biochemistry and drug development applications.