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The distribution of pathogenic and toxigenic genes among MRSA and MSSA clinical isolates

Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali, Ashrafi, Elnaz, Tazandareh, Shafie Gorbani, Koosha, Roohollah Zarei, Rad, Hamid Sedighian, Amin, Mohsen, Soori, Mina, Larki, Reza Abbasi, Choopani, Ali, Hosseini, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh
Microbial pathogenesis 2015 v.81 pp. 60-66
antibiotic resistance, benzylpenicillin, chromosomes, cross infection, disk diffusion antimicrobial test, enterotoxins, genes, kanamycin, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, morbidity, mortality, pathogens, patients, polymerase chain reaction, septic shock, vancomycin, virulence
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is considered as a notorious nosocomial pathogen among hospitalized patients and community-dwelling subjects. Its increasing morbidity and mortality is believed to be due to antibiotic resistance. However, the data concerning molecular properties of infecting strains are few.In this study, a total of 192 S. aureus strains, including 88 (45.8%) meticillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 104 (54.2%) meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were recovered from clinical samples. The prevalence of subtypes containing staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SSCmec), staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST) and exfoliative toxin was assessed by PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and vancomycin resistance of each isolate were evaluated by disk diffusion method and micro-dilution method, respectively.9 (2.3%) strains required MIC > 2 mg/l of vancomycin, which significantly increased among multi drug resistant (MDR), MRSA and SCCmec type III strains (p < 0.05). 171 (89%), 140 (72.91%), 7 (3.6), 78 (48.6%), 5 (2.6%), 151 (78.64%), 129 (67.18%), 178 (92.7%) and 15 (7.8%) of 192 isolates harbored mecA, entA, entB, entC, entD, entE, eta, etb and tsst-1 genes, respectively. 31 (16.14%), 5 (2.6%), 95 (49.48%) and 7 (3.64%) of 192 isolates carried SCCmec type I, II, III and IV, respectively. We found a significantly higher rate of MRSA and resistance to all tested antibiotics, except to penicillin G, kanamycin and linezolide among the SCCmec type III class (p < 0.05).According to our findings, MSSA isolates should be taken as seriously as MRSA strains due to the potential presence of broad spectrum virulence factor genes.