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Oleocanthalic Acid, a Chemical Marker of Olive Oil Aging and Exposure to a High Storage Temperature with Potential Neuroprotective Activity
- Tsolakou, Annia, Diamantakos, Panagiotis, Kalaboki, Iliana, Mena-Bravo, Antonio, Priego-Capote, Feliciano, Abdallah, Ihab M., Kaddoumi, Amal, Melliou, Eleni, Magiatis, Prokopios
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.28 pp. 7337-7346
- Alzheimer disease, blood-brain barrier, ingredients, neuroprotective effect, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, oleocanthal, olive oil, oxidation, storage temperature, storage time, tandem mass spectrometry, tight junctions, transport proteins
- The investigation of olive oils stored for a period of 24 months under appropriate conditions (25 °C, dark place, and airtight container) led to the identification of a new major phenolic ingredient, which was named oleocanthalic acid. The structure of the new compound was elucidated using one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance in combination with tandem mass spectrometry. The new compound is an oxidation product of oleocanthal and is found in fresh oils in very low concentrations. The concentration of oleocanthalic acid increased with storage time, while the oleocanthal concentration decreased. A similar increase of the oleocanthalic acid/oleocanthal ratio was achieved after exposure of olive oil to 60 °C for 14 days. Although the presence of an oxidized derivative of decarboxymethylated ligstroside aglycon had been reported, it is the first time that its structure is characterized. The isolated compound could induce the expression of amyloid-β major transport proteins as well as tight junctions expressed at the blood–brain barrier, suggesting that oleocanthalic acid could be beneficial against Alzheimer’s disease.