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Camellia Oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) Modifies the Composition of Gut Microbiota and Alleviates Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

Lee, Wei-Ting, Tung, Yu-Tang, Wu, Chun-Ching, Tu, Pang-Shuo, Yen, Gow-Chin
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.28 pp. 7384-7392
Bifidobacterium, Camellia oleifera, Firmicutes, Prevotella, acetic acid, antioxidants, body weight, colitis, enzyme activity, feces, gastrointestinal system, intestinal microorganisms, lipid peroxidation, microbial communities, olive oil, phytopharmaceuticals, rats, ribosomal RNA, sequence analysis, soybean oil, species diversity
Ulcerative colitis (UC), one type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is a chronic and recurrent disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. As camellia oil (CO) is traditionally used to treat GI disorders, this study investigated the role of CO on acetic acid-induced colitis in the rat. The composition of the gut microbial community is related to many diseases; thus, this study also investigated the effects of CO on the composition of the gut microbiota. The rats were fed a dose of 2 mL/kg body weight CO, olive oil (OO), or soybean oil (SO) once a day for 20 days, and the gut microbiota was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results of the gut microbiota examination showed significant clustering of feces after treatment with CO and OO; however, individual differences with OO varied considerably. Compared to SO and OO, the intake of CO increased the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes, the α-diversity, relative abundance of the Bifidobacterium, and reduced Prevotella of the gut microbiota. On day 21, colitis was induced by a single transrectal administration of 2 mL of 4% acetic acid. However, pretreatment of rats with CO or OO for 24 days slightly enhanced antioxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities and significantly reduced inflammatory damage and lipid peroxidation, thus ameliorating acetic acid-induced colitis. These results indicated that CO was better able to ameliorate impairment of the antioxidant system induced by acetic acid compared to OO and SO, which may have been due to CO modifying the composition of the gut microbiota or CO being a rich source of phytochemicals.